The science behind


Nanoscience involves materials below 100nm in size. In a similar way to how our world changed when we discovered how to manipulate electrons, creating electricity, now we have discovered how to manipulate materials at the atomic level, leading to nanotechnology.


Size ≈ 10nm
Core: crystalline structure = bulk
Shell: disordered surface atoms



Size ≈ 1.1nm
Core: structure = or ≠ bulk
Shell: stabilized by strong binding protecting ligands (phosphines, thiols...)



Size ≈ 0.5nm
No-core shell structure
No need for binding with strong stabilizing ligands (A=adsorbate)

  • Clusters of a few atoms in size
  • Very stable
  • Metal elements but no metallic properties
  • Band gap structure with confined electrons
  • New and unique size dependent properties
  • Thermo-, electro-, photo-catalytic properties

With NANOGAP’s M-M technology a third dimension to the periodic table has been created, going beyond enhanced surface properties and into the realm of new and  unique size dependent properties. The conventional periodic table is only the tip of the material iceberg.

M-M vs conventional catalyst

A catalyst is a substance that facilitates a chemical reaction by speeding up the rate of the reaction without being consumed or permanently changed itself. It works by lowering the activation energy required for the reaction to occur, allowing the reaction to happen more readily.

Catalysts enable chemical reactions to proceed efficiently, and they can be used repeatedly in multiple reactions. They play a crucial role in various industrial processes and in nature, as enzymes, are essential for many biological reactions in living organisms.


Metal-Molecules catalyze reactions in a completely different way which allows the reaction to happened:

  • With new reaction pathways
  • Lower activation energies
  • Increased selectivity

Which results in efficiency improvements of up to 1,000x